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What was the Missile Gap?

The Missile Gap was in essence a growing perception in the West, especially in the USA, that the Soviet Union was quickly developing an intercontinental range ballistic missile (ICBM) capability earlier, in greater numbers, and with far more capability than that of the United States. Even as that perception was disproved, it became evident that the Soviets were placing their major effort toward developing strategic missiles against which, once launched, there was no defense. The perceived missile gap that ensued was based on a comparison between US ICBM strength as then programmed, and reasonable, although erroneous estimates of prospective Soviet ICBM strength that were generally accepted.

Both the Eisenhower and Kennedy administrations struggled to formulate policy in response to what was then believed to be an ever-growing advantage in Soviet strategic missiles. Breakthroughs in technology and innovative use of aerial and satellite photography eventually provided the CIA with a more accurate assessment of Soviet missile capacity, allowing policy makers to shift gears.

To convey the intelligence controversy, CIA's Historical Collections Division has released a large selection of documents (189) declassified for the first time, coupled with other documents which were formerly declassified, but released here again with significant previously withheld text now restored based on new, broader declassification guidelines.

View the OPA Press Release and Collection Booklet

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Table of Contents

1953 | 1954 | 1955 | 1956 | 1957 | 1958 | 1959 | 1960 | 1961 | 1962 | 1963 | 1964 | 1969 | 1975 | 1992 | 1995

 


1953

CIA/DI/FBIS Radio Propaganda Report, Nuclear Weapons in Soviet Propaganda, disseminated 23 December 1953.

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1954

CIA/DCI Blind Memorandum for the President, Reconnaissance, 24 November 1954.
Colonel A.J. Goodpaster, Aide to President Eisenhower, Blind Memorandum of Conference with President, 24 November 1954.

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1955

CIA/DCI/Special Assistant to the Director, Project Outline, 7 January 1955.

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1956

DCI/IC/Intelligence Advisory Committee (IAC) Terms of Reference for the Guided Missile Intelligence Committee (GMIC), disseminated 24 January 1956.
CIA/DI/ONE National Intelligence Estimate NIE 11-56, Soviet Gross Capabilities for Attack on the US and Key Overseas Installations and Forces through Mid-1959, disseminated 6 March 1956.
CIA/DI/ONE Memorandum for the DCI, Current Estimates of Soviet IRBM and ICBM Capabilities prepared for DCI Dulles' Testimony to the Symington Committee, disseminated 25 June 1956.
CIA/DI/Office of Scientific Intelligence (OSI) Memorandum for the National Security Council, Current Estimates of Soviet IRBM and ICBM Capabilities, disseminated 4 December 1956.

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1957

CIA/DI/ONE National Intelligence Estimate 11-6-57 Soviet Gross Capabilities for Attack on the Continental United States in Mid-1960, disseminated 15 January 1957.
CIA/DI/FBIS Radio Propaganda Report, Soviet Reaction to the Plan for Stationing US Atomic Units Abroad, 30 January 1957.
CIA/DI/ONE National Intelligence Estimate 11-5-57 Soviet Capabilities and Probable Programs in the Guided Missile Field, 12 March 1957.
CIA/DI/ONE National Intelligence Estimate 11-5-57 Soviet Capabilities and Probable Programs in the Guided Missile Field, Annex D Estimated Soviet Nuclear Warhead Capabilities, 12 March 1957.
CIA/DI/ORR Geographic Intelligence Report, A Summary of Estimated Soviet Capabilities in Geodesy, Gravimetry, and Cartography, April 1957.
ORR Geographic Intelligence Report: A Summary of Estimated Soviet Capabilities in Geodesy, Gravimetry, and Cartography
CIA/DI/FBIS Radio Propaganda Report, Marshal Zhukov on the Nature of a Future War, disseminated 5 April 1957.
CIA/DI/OCI Current Intelligence Weekly Review, Possible Soviet Preparations for Flight Testing an Intercontinental Ballistic Missile or an Earth Satellite, 11 April 1957.
CIA/DCI National Security Council Briefing, Latest Soviet Guided Missile Test Activities, 23 May 1957.
CIA/DI/ONE National Intelligence Estimate 11-3-57, Probable Intelligence Warning of Soviet Attack on the United States, disseminated 18 June 1957.
CIA/DI/ORR/Photographic Interpretation Division (PID), Photographic Intelligence Brief, Tyura Tam Guided Missile Range Head, disseminated 23 August 1957.
Air Force Intelligence, Briefing for the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 26 August 1957.
CIA/DP/Office of Special Activities/Aquatone Project, Briefing Paper for the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Guided Missiles, Atomic Energy and Long-Range Bombers, disseminated 28 August 1957.
CIA/DI/OCI Current Intelligence Bulletin, Political Implications of Soviet Missile Announcement, 28 August 1957.
CIA/DI/ORR/PID, Photographic Intelligence Report ODE-4058, Preliminary Study of U-2 Photography, disseminated 4 September 1957.
CIA/DI/OCI Remarks Prepared for the DCI Briefing for NSC, Soviet ICBM Announcement, disseminated 11 September 1957.
Joint Army/Navy/CIA/PID Photographic Intelligence Memorandum, Tyura Tam Missile Test Facility, Kazakh Republic, USSR, disseminated 12 September 1957.
CIA/DI/ONE Special National Intelligence Estimate 11-8-57, Evaluation of Evidence Concerning Soviet ICBM Flight Tests, disseminated18 September 1957.
CIA/DDI Memorandum, Production of Guided Missile Intelligence from Evidence Gathered by Aquatone, disseminated 3 October 1957.
CIA/DCI/IAC Ad Hoc Requirements Committee (ARC), Program for Aquatone Coverage of the USSR, disseminated 9 October 1957.
Air Force Memorandum for Chairman GMIC Subcommittee for Guidance to Collectors, Current and Projected Collection Effort Directed toward the Tyura Tam-Klyuchi ICBM Range, disseminated 9 October 1957.
CIA/DI/ORR/Talent Control Officer Memorandum, Presidential Briefings on Talent Materials, disseminated 9 October 1957.
CIA/DCI/IAC/ ARC Memorandum for (Talent) Project Director, Review of Requirements, disseminated 24 October 1957.
CIA/DI/ORR Memorandum Contribution to CIA Proposed Draft of SNIE 11-10-57 for GMIC Consideration, disseminated 6 November 1957.
CIA/DI/ONE National Intelligence Estimate 11-4-57, disseminated 12 November 1957.
CIA/DI/OSI, ORR Memorandum for Assistant Director Scientific Intelligence, Consultants Views on GMIC Conclusions to Draft SNIE 11-10-57, disseminated 15 November 1957.
CIA/DI/ONE Special National Intelligence Estimate 11-10-57, The Soviet ICBM Program, disseminated 17 December 1957.

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1958

CIA/DI/OCR, 1957 Listing of Talent Reports, published early in 1958.
CIA/DCI/IAC/ARC Blind Memorandum Ad Hoc Requirements Committee Recommendations for a Program of Acquatone Coverage of the USSR, disseminated 7 January 1958.
CIA/DCI/Special Assistant for Aquatone Project Blind Memorandum, Flight Planning Information, disseminated 22 January 1958.
CIA/DCI/Special Assistant for Aquatone Project Blind Memorandum, Project Aquatone Operational Concept -- Winter/Spring 1958, disseminated 31 January 1958.
CIA/DP Information Report, Location of Soviet ICBM Bases, Missile Production Sites, Research Centers and Training Schools. Uranium Deposits under Soviet Control, date of information April 1958, exact dissemination date is unavailable.
DCI/IAC/GMIC Memorandum, First Operational Availability Date for Soviet ICBM, disseminated 5 May 1958.
CIA/DI/OSI Briefing for NSC, Soviet ICBM Test, disseminated 27 May 1958.
CIA/DI OSI/Guided Missile Division and ORR/Guided Missile Branch Joint Memorandum for Chief, ORR/Geographic Area, Request for Study of Possible Soviet ICBM Locations, disseminated 9 June 1958.
CIA/DCI Memorandum for IAC, Reporting on Test ICBM and Space Vehicles, disseminated 17 July 1958.
CIA/DI/ONE National Intelligence Estimate 11-5-58, Soviet Capabilities in Guided Missiles and Space Vehicles (Excludes Annexes B"C), disseminated 19 August 1958.
Joint Army/Navy/CIA/PIC Photographic Intelligence Report, Missile Launching Complex and Test Range, Tyura Tam, USSR, disseminated September 1958.
CIA/DCI Memorandum for Chairman GMIC, Soviet ICBM Development Program, disseminated 9 October 1958.
CIA Memorandum to White House Staff Secretary, BGen A.J. Goodpaster, forwarding a copy of the DCI's 9 October 1958 memorandum to the Chairman, GMIC, Soviet ICBM Development Program, disseminated 13 October 1958.
CIA/DI/ORR Contribution to GMIC, Re-examination of the Soviet ICBM Production and Deployment Program Considered in NIE 11-5-58, disseminated 24 October 1958.
CIA/DCI/USIB/GMIC Blind Memorandum for the USIB, Status of the Soviet ICBM Program, disseminated 10 November 1958.
CIA/DCI/Ad Hoc (Hyland) Panel, Memorandum for DCI, Report on Status of the Soviet ICBM Program, 14 November 1958.
CIA/DCI Memorandum to USIB, Improvement of Intelligence Collection System against the Soviet ICBM Program, 20 November 1958.
CIA/DI/ORR/Photographic Intelligence Center (PIC), Photographic Intelligence Memorandum, Possible Microwave Communications Aktyubinsk to Tashkent Via Tyura Tam and Stalingrad to Kapustin Yar/Vladimirovka, December 1958.
CIA/DCI/Ad Hoc Panel Briefing for NSC Modified Estimate of Soviet ICBM Capabilities, 3 December 1958.
CIA/DI/ONE Memorandum for the Director from Sherman Kent, Assistant Director National Estimates, Revision of USIB Subcommittee Charters, Particularly Those of JAEIC, GMIC and the SEC, 10 December 1958.
CIA DCI Briefing of Senator Stuart Symington on Soviet Ballistic Missile Programs and Capabilities, 16 December 1958.
CIA/DCI/USIB/GMIC Memorandum for Members, Guided Missile Intelligence Committee, Missile Intelligence Requirement, 16 December 1958.
CIA/DI/ONE National Intelligence Estimate 11-4-58, Main Trends in Soviet Capabilities and Policies 1957-1962, 23 December 1958.
CIA/DCI/Ad Hoc Panel Memorandum for DCI, Addendum to DCI Ad Hoc Panel Report on Status of the Soviet ICBM Program, 14 November 1958.

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1959

Air Force, Memorandum for Chairman GMIC, Missile Intelligence Requirements, 5 January 1959.
CIA/DCI/USIB/GMIC Memorandum for Chairman Guided Missile Intelligence from Chief, Guided Missiles Division, CIA/DI/OSI, "Ten Most Wanted" Items on the Soviet Guided Missile Program, 6 January 1959.
CIA/DCI Memorandum for the President, Comments on Reported Khrushchev Statement on Series production of ICBMs, disseminated January 1959
CIA/DI/ORR/Guided Missile Branch Monthly Report, December 1958, 6 January 1959.
CIA/DP/Talent Control Officer Memorandum for Deputy Director Plans, Highest Priority Requirements for Missiles, 8 January 1959.
CIA/ORR/ID Memorandum for D/ORR from Chief, Industrial Division, Comments on Draft DCID 3/4, "Production of Guided Missile and Astronautics Intelligence," 9 January 1959.
FBIS Radio Propaganda Report, Recent Soviet Propaganda Claims of ICBM Invulnerability, 12 January 1959.
CIA/ORR/Guided Missile Branch, List of Recent Soviet Statements on ICBM Capability, 2 February 1959.
CIA/DDI Blind Memorandum, Recent National Intelligence Estimates on Soviet ICBM Capabilities, 23 February 1959.
DOD/Department of Navy, Memorandum for GMAIC, "Ten Most Wanted List," 16 March 1959.
CIA/DP/SPO, Project Chalice, 31 March 1959.
CIA/DI/PIC Listing of Talent Reports 1956-1958, disseminated 1 April 1959.
White House, Colonel John S.D. Eisenhower Memorandum for the DCI, Memorandum of Conference with the President, 3 April 1959.
CIA/DI/FBIS, Radio Propaganda Report, Soviet Propaganda Treatment of the USSR's Strategic Rocket capability, 23 April 1959.
USAF Memorandum for CIA/DDP, Joint Planning on (Chalice) Telemetry Collection, 26 June 1959.
CIA/DDI Memo: Soviet ICBM Program, 29 June 1959.
CIA/DP/SPO, Proposed Chalice Missions, 1 July 1959.
Joint Army/Navy/NSA/CIA/PIC Photographic Intelligence Report, Probable Tyura Tam Missile Test Range Facility near Tartugay, USSR, July 1959.
CIA/DP Outgoing Cable announcing approval for the ODE 4125 U-2 Chalice mission, disseminated 6 July 1959.
CIA/DI/PIC Photographic Intelligence Memorandum, ODE-4125 Pre ODE Brief, the date of information is 9 July 1959, disseminated 14 July 1959.
CIA/DI/PIC Photographic Intelligence Memorandum U-2 Mission ODE-4125, the date of information is 9 July 1959; disseminated 17 July 1959.
Joint Army/Navy/CIA/PIC Operational Site Team, Memorandum for Chairman of GMAIC, Report of Operational Site Team, 14 August 1959.
DCI/USIB/Ad Hoc (Hyland) Panel Memorandum for DCI, Report of DCI Ad Hoc Panel on Status of the Soviet ICBM Program, 25 August 1959.
DCI/USIB/Ad Hoc (Hyland) Panel Memorandum for DCI, "Annex to the Report of DCI Ad Hoc Panel on Status of the Soviet ICBM Program," 25 August 1959.
CIA/DDP Memorandum for DI/OSI/Chief Development Project Division, Report of the Ad Hoc (Hyland) Panel on Status of the Soviet ICBM Program, 28 August 1959.
DCI/USIB/Ad Hoc Requirements Committee (ARC) Blind Memorandum, Recommendations of ARC for Use of Talent to determine the Status of Soviet ICBM Threat, 8 September 1959.
CIA/DI/ONE Memorandum for the DCI, Briefing of Senator Stuart Symington on Soviet ICBM Program, 22 September 1959.
CIA/DI/ORR/GMIC Memorandum for AD/ORR, Status of DD/P--DD/I Guided Missile Task Force, 19 October 1959.
CIA/DI/ONE, National Intelligence Estimate 11-5-59, Soviet Capabilities in Guided Missiles and Space Vehicles, 3 November 1959.
CIA/DI/PIC Preliminary Photographic intelligence Report, ODE-8005, date of information 6 December 1959, disseminated 13 December 1959.

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1960

CIA/DI/ONE Memorandum for the DCI, Some Implications of Khrushchev's Speech to the Supreme Soviet, 21 January 1960.
CIA/DDI Memorandum for DCI from the Chairman Critical Collection Problems Committee, Operational ICBM Sites, 27 January 1960.
CIA/DDI as Chairman of the Critical Collections Problems Committee, "Attachment to Memorandum for DCI from the, Operational ICBM Sites," 27 January 1960.
CIA/DI/ONE National Intelligence Estimate 11-8-59, Soviet Capabilities for Strategic Attack Through Mid-1964, 9 February 1960.
CIA/DI/ONE National Intelligence Estimate 11-4-59, Main Trends in Soviet Capabilities and Policies, 1959-1964, 9 February 1960.
CIA/DI/Joint ONE/OCI Memorandum for DDI and DDP, The Case for the Soviets' Employment of Already-Constructed Bases for Long-Range Aviation as ICBM Launching Sites, 23 February 1960.
CIA/DCI/GMAIC Ad Hoc Working Group on ICBM Production, Evaluation of Evidence on Soviet ICBM Production, 8 April 1960.
CIA/DI/ORR/PIC Report on U-2 Mission B, ODE 4155, 16 April 1960.
CIA/DI/Photographic Intelligence Center Technical Publication, Time Correction Information for Selected Talent Missions, June 1960.
CIA/DP Information Report, Installations in the Verkhnaya-Nizhnaya Salda Area, date of information 1957-early 1958, disseminated 8 June 1960.
CIA/DI NSC Briefing, Soviet Missile Tests, 29 June 1960.
Joint Army, Navy, CIA/PIC Photographic Intelligence Report, New Launch Area and Other Developments Missile Launching Complex Tyura Tam, USSR, A Comparative Analysis of Photography, July 1960.
Army/Navy/NSA/CIA/PIC Photographic Intelligence Center, Joint Photographic Intelligence Report, Location and Description of Flim Flam Station No 3, Lake Balkhash, USSR, July 1960.
CIA DI/ONE National Intelligence Estimate, 11-8-60, Soviet Capabilities for Long-Range Attack Through Mid-1965, 1 August 1960.
National Security Council Actions, Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) and Intermediate Range Missile (IRBM) Programs, 19 August 1960.
CIA/DCI Memorandum for: BG Andrew J. Goodpaster, Statistics Relating to the U-2 Program, 19 August 1960; and an attachment, Accomplishments of the U-2 Program, 27 May 1960.
CIA/DCI GMAIC Deployment Working Group Report, Soviet Surface-to-Surface [missile] Deployment, 1 September 1960.
CIA/DI/Joint ORR/OSI/OCI Economic Intelligence Report Soviet Program for ICBM Production: An Interpretation and Analysis of Official Soviet Statements, October 1960.
CIA/DCI/Guided Missiles Task Force Memorandum for DDI, Status of Guided Missiles Task Force Research, 15 October 1960.
CIA/ORR Brief, Explanation of Geodetic Target Error for the ICBM in Relating Launch and Target Points on Different Continents, 21 October 1960.
CIA/DI/NPIC Photographic Intelligence Report, Location and Description of Probable Flim Flam Station No 6, Khutor, USSR, November 1961.
CIA/DI/OSI Soviet ICBM Operational Launches, disseminated 8 November 1960.
CIA/DI/ONE National Intelligence Estimate 11-4-60, Main Trends in Soviet Capabilities and Policies, 1960-1965, 1 December 1960.
CIA/DI/NPIC Joint Photographic Intelligence Brief, Flim Flam Station, 22 December 1960.

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1961

Founding of the National Photographic Interpretation Center: Remember Our Past, Chart Our Future, CIA History and Heritage, 18 January 1961.
CIA/DI/ONE National Intelligence Estimate 11-5-61, Soviet Technical Capabilities in Guided Missiles and Space Vehicles, 25 April 1961.
CIA/DI/ONE Memorandum for DDI, Briefing Notes re Soviet Capabilities for Long Range Attack, 8 May 1961.
CIA/ DCI Congressional Briefing, Soviet Capabilities for Long Range Attack, 16 May 1961.
CIA/ DP Clandestine Report Special Collection, Soviet ICBM Program, date of information early May 1961, disseminated 16 May 1961, reissued at a lower classification circa 1 March 1963.
CIA/DI/Joint ORR/OSI Ad Hoc Guided Missile Task Force Memorandum for DDI, Comment on Clandestine Report on Soviet ICBM Program, 2 June 1961.
CIA/DI/ONE National Intelligence Estimate 11-8-61, Soviet Capabilities for Long-Range Attack Annexes A"B, 7 June 1961.
CIA/DI/ONE National Intelligence Estimate 11-8-61, Soviet Capabilities for Long-Range Attack; Annex C, The Soviet ICBM Program--Evidence and Analysis 7 June 1961.
CIA/DI/ONE Memorandum for Chairman GMAIC, Request for Evaluation of Suspected ICBM Deployment Areas, 30 June 1961.
CIA/DI/National Photographic Intelligence Center (NPIC) Photographic Interpretation Report, ICBM Launch Complex Yur'ya, USSR, July 1961.
CIA/DI/NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, ICBM Launch Complex Yoshkar-Ola, USSR, July 1961.
CIA/DI/OSI Memorandum for Assistant Director for Scientific Intelligence from the OSI Talent Control Officer, Search for Flim Flam Sites in the USSR, 31 July 1961.
CIA/DI/NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, Possible ICBM Launch Site Near Kostroma, USSR, August 1961.
CIA/DP Information Report, Structure of the Soviet Missile Command and Control Program, date of information 1959 to mid-1961 originally disseminated 4 august 1961, reissued in full at a lower classification 7 March 1963.
CIA/DCI/USIB Memorandum Soviet Surface-to-Surface Missile Deployment, 16 August 1961.
CIA/DCI/GMAIC Memorandum for the DCI, Soviet Surface-to-Surface Missile Deployment, 22 August 1961.
CIA/DI/ONE National Intelligence Estimate 11-4-61, Main Trends in Soviet Capabilities and Policies, 1961-1966, Annex A: Soviet Military Forces and Capabilities; Annex B: Tables of Sino-Soviet Bloc Military Strengths and Characteristics of Selected Weapons and Equipment, disseminated 24 August 1961.
CIA/DP Intelligence Report, Various Aspects of Soviet Ballistic Missile Development, date of information up to July 1961, originally disseminated 30 August 1961, reissued in full 8 March 1963 at a lower classification.
CIA/DP Information Report, Soviet Nuclear Weapons, date of information up to mid-1961, originally disseminated 14 September 1961, reissued in full 11 March 1963 at a lower classification.
CIA/DI/ONE National Intelligence Estimate 11-8/1-61, Supplement to NIE 11-8-61, Strength and Deployment of Soviet Long-Range Ballistic Missile Forces, 21 September 1961.
Memorandum from Secretary of Defense McNamara to President Kennedy, Appendix I: Recommended Long Range Nuclear Delivery Forces 1963-1967, 23 September 1961.
CIA/DI/NPIC Photographic Interpretation Brief, ICBM Launch Complex Verkhnyaya Salda, USSR, October 1961.
CIAI/DI/NPIC Photographic Interpretation Brief, ICBM Launch Complex, Itatka, USSR, disseminated October 1961.
CIA/DP Information Report, Development in the Soviet Missile and Nuclear Weapons Programs, date of information up to mid-September 1961, originally disseminte 2 October 1961, reissued in full 12 March 1963 t a lower classification.
DCI/IC/USIB/GMAIC Working Group on Production, Critique of the USIB Review of the Commander-In-Chief Strategic Air Command Memo on Soviet ICBM Strength, October 1961.
CIA/DCI/USIB/GMAIC Memorandum for Chairman Scientific Intelligence Committee, GMAIC Contribution to Scientific Intelligence Committee Estimate on Soviet Science and Technology, 12 October 1961.
CIA/DI/NPIC Memorandum for DDI, USSR Rail Line Search for ICBM Activity, 16 October 1961.
Joint NPIC, Photographic Interpretation Brief, Launch Area B, ICBM Launch Complex Yoshkar-Ola, USSR, 11 November 1961.
CIA/DI/NPIC Memorandum for DDI, USSR Rail Line Search for ICBM Activity, 11 November1961.
CIA/DCI Memorandum to Commander in Chief, Strategic Air Command, Reappraisal of Evidence on Soviet ICBM Deployment, 16 November 1961.
CIA DP Information Report, The Position of Soviet Missile Designer Korolev, date of information mid-November 1961, originally disseminated 4 December 1961, reissued 18 March 1963 at a lower classification.
CIA/DCI/GMAIC Memorandum for Office of National Estimates, The Soviet Second Generation ICBM System, 22 December 1961.
CIA/DI/FBIS Radio Propaganda Report, Soviet Public Statements bearing on Anti-Missile Defense, 22 December 1961.

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1962

CIA/DCI/GMAIC/Deployment Working Group Report, Soviet Surface-to-Surface Missile Deployment, 1 January 1962.
CIA/DI/NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, USSR Rail Line Search for ICBM Activity, January 1962.
CIA/DI/NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, Reexamination of Sam Sites Associated with Soviet ICBM Launch Complexes, February 1962
Joint CIA/DIA Task Force, Areas Highly Suspected to Contain Soviet ICBM Launching Facilities, 21 February 1962.
Joint NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, OAK-Part III Mission 9031 17 February-3 March 1962, March 1962.
CIA/DI/NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, Re-evaluation of "Possible" ICBM Activity near Nyandoma, USSR, March 1962.
CIA/DI/NPIC Photographic Interpretation report Oak-Part III, Mission 9031, 27 February-3 March 1962.
CIA/DI/NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, ICBM Launch Area Northeast of Plesetsk, USSR, April 1962.
CIA/DI/NPIC, Photographic Interpretation Report, Search of Mission 9031 for ICBM Activity Along Soviet Rail Lines, April 1962.
CIA/DI/OSI Memorandum for Deputy Director Central Intelligence, Reconvening of the Hyland Panel on the Status of the Soviet ICBM Program, 17 April 1962.
CIA/DI/NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, ICBM Launch Complex Perm', USSR, May 1962.
CIA/DI/NPIC, Photographic Interpretation Report, ICBM Launch Complex, Drovyanaya, USSR. May 1962.
CIA/DI/NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, ICBM Launch Complex Near Shadrinsk, USSR, May 1962.
CIA/DI/NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, ICBM Launch Complex Tyumen', USSR, May 1962.
CIA/DI/NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, ICBM Launch Complex Svobodnyy, USSR, June 1962.
CIA/DI NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, Construction Timing of Soviet ICBM Launch Complexes, June 1962.
CIA/DP Information Report, Projected Soviet Space Launchings, date of information up to June 1962, originally disseminated 8 June 1962, reissued 18 March 1963 at a lower classification.
CIA/DI/NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, ICBM Launch Complex Teykovo, USSR, August 1962.
CIA/DI/NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, Current Summary of Soviet ICBM Launch Areas Identified on Keyhole Photography, August 1962.
CIA/DI/NPIC, Photographic Interpretation Report, ICBM Launch Complex Kozel'sk, USSR, September 1962.
CIA/DI/GMAIC Deployment Working Group Report, Soviet Surface-to-Surface Missile Deployment, 1 October 1962.
NPIC, Photographic Interpretation Report: ICBM Launch Complex Gladkaya, USSR, 10 October 1962.
CIA/DI/ORR Memorandum for the DCI, Evaluation of Current Strategic Air Command List of Suspect ICBM Deployment Areas, 26 October 1962.
CIA/DI/NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, USSR Rail Line Search for ICBM Activity 23 June 1962-19 September 1962, December 1962.

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1963

NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report: ICBM Launch Complex Omsk, USSR, 1 April 1963.
NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report: Newly identified ICBM Complex, Olovyannaya, USSR, 1 April 1963.

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1964

NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, ICBM Complex, Novosibirsk, USSR, 1 April 1964.
NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, ICBM Complex, Olovyannaya, USSR, 1 April 1964.
CIA/DI/NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report: ICBM Complex, Olovyannaya, USSR, disseminated April1964.
NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, ICBM Complex Plesetsk, USSR. 1 May 1964.
NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, USSR Rail Line Search for ICBM Activity on Mission 1004, May 1964.
NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, ICBM Complex Zhangiz-Tobe, USSR, 1 August 1964.
NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, Newly Identified ICBM Complex, Dombarovskiy, USSR, 1 September 1964
CIA/Center for Studies in Intelligence, "The Diyarbakir Radar", by Stanley G. Zabetakis and John F. Peterson, Studies In Intelligence, Volume 8, Fall Issue, 1964.
NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, ICBM Complex: Aleysk, USSR, 13 September 1964.
NPIC Photographic Report, Probable ICBM Complex, Kartaly, USSR, 20 September 1964.
NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, Newly Identified ICBM Complex, Uzhur, USSR, 27 September 1964.
NPIC Photographic Interpretation Report, Rocket Engine Test Facility, Perm' USSR, 28 September 1964.
NPIC Photographic Report, ICBM Complex, Near Imemi Gastello, USSR, 11 October 1964.

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1969

CIA/CSI/History Staff, "The President's Board: 1956-60" by Philip K. Edwards Overseeing the Intelligence Community Volume 13 Summer Issue, 1 June 1969.

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1975

CIA/CSI/History Staff, Center for the Study of Intelligence, "Closing the Missile Gap," date of information 28 May 1975, published by CSI and edited by Michael Warner, 1998.

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1992

CIA/CSI/ History Staff Monograph, The Central Intelligence Agency and Overhead Reconnaissance: The U-2 and Oxcart Programs, 16 July 2002.

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1995

CIA/CIS/History Staff, Center for Study of Intelligence, Cold War Records: CORONA: America's First Satellite Program, edited by Kevin C. Ruffner, 1995.

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