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Strategic Warning and the Role of Intelligence: Lessons Learned From The 1968 Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia

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Overview

The Czechoslovak crisis began in January 1968. The Czech communist leadership embarked on a program of dramatic liberalization of the political, economic, and social orders. These reforms triggered increasing Soviet concerns culminating in the invasion of 21 August 1968. This collection of documents pertains to these issues, the responses and analysis of this event in history.

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Document List

Current Intelligence Articles

Weekly Summary - Czechoslovak Power Struggle Intensifies
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovakia Outlines Economic 'Action Program'
Central Intelligence Bulletin - The New Government's Foreign Policy takes a More Nationalistic Turn
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Liberals Gaining Upper Hand in Central Leadership
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Party Boss Dubcek Endorses Democratization Process
Weekly Summary - Communist Reaction to Events in Poland and Czechoslovakia
Weekly Summary - Dubcek Winning Political Struggle
Central Intelligence Bulletin-Czechoslovakia - Premier Lenart is Acting President as Factions Maneuver
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Liberals Push for More Resignations and Reform
Central Intelligence Bulletin-Czechoslovakia-Eastern Europe - Prague Developments are being Criticized
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia Dubcek virtually declares Czechoslovak Party independence
Weekly Summary - New Czechoslovak Regime Talks of Future Plans
Weekly Summary - The Dresden Summit Conference
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR - Soviet authorities rule out any liberalization on Czechoslovak model
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Reformers cement hold on party's top policymaking body
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - New Government
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Party Central Committee approves far-reaching changes
Central Intelligence Bulletin-USSR-Central Committee statement concerned over divisiveness and liberalization
Central Intelligence Bulletin-Czechoslovakia- Dubcek 'action program' is one of the most progressive reforms
Central Intelligence Bulletin-Czechoslovakia-Conservatives and progressives infighting intensifiies
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovaks Publish Party Action Program
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Prague will seek to trade more in Western markets
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Government relations are deteriorating
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovakia Prepares to Adopt New Policies
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Liberal plans to push reforms received a setback
Central Intelligence Bulletin-Czechoslovakia-USSR Prague disrupting Soviet plans for Communist conference
Weekly Summary - Communist Disunity Apparent at Budapest Conference
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovak Leader Calls for Unity
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Prague will not support East German harassing of Berlin
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Dubcek to Moscow
Central Intelligence Bulletin-Czechoslovakia-USSR - Both leaders resolve little in Moscow talks
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - New mission to Moscow
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Party leaders bow to liberals in an early party congress
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - Moscow meets with close allies on pressuring Prague
Central Intelligence Bulletin USSR-Czechoslovakia - Soviet troop movements on Polish-Czech border
Weekly Summary - Moscow Building up Pressure on Czechoslovakia
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Prague says it had prior notice of Soviet troop movements
Central Intelligence Bulletin- USSR-Czechoslovakia - Soviets maintain pressure
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Both sides seem to be trying to ease the tension
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Prague assures Moscow of continued support
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Moscow to reduce public concern over military pressures
Weekly Summary - Soviet Union Threatens to Intervene in Czechoslovakia
Central Intelligence Bulletin Poland-Hungary-Warsaw prods Hungarians in containing Czechoslovak liberalism
Central Intelligence Bulletin- Czechoslovakia - Soviet leaders visit Prague in attempt to bring matters to a head
Central Intelligence Bulletin Czechoslovakia-USSR - Hard bargaining continues on concessions and economic aid
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Stalemate continues
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Liberals push for resignations of conservatives at plenum
Central Intelligence Bulletin-Czechoslovakia-USSR- Prague apparently given Moscow some reassurance
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Prague's leaders begin new talks with Kosygin
Weekly Summary - Prague Still Parries Soviet Pressure
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Kosygin visit drawing to a close
Central Intelligence Bulletin- Czechoslovakia-USSR- Kosygin returned to Moscow to await outcome
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Factional struggle; Consumer goods
Central Intelligence Bulletin-Czechoslovakia Dubcek attempts to satisfy liberals while mollifying
Weekly Summary - USSR and Czechoslovakia at Stand-Off
Weekly Summary - Warsaw Pact Exercise Planned
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Military exercise publicity attempt to allay intervention fears
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Party leader Dubcek has further stamped the regime
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Party leaders drum up support for conservatives ouster
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-East Germany - Moscow reassures Ulbricht of its support
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovak Leaders Maintain Active Political Pace
Central Intelligence Bulletin-Czechoslovakia - Publicity on Pact exercises not allaying fears of intervention
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Meeting in Moscow last month prompted shifts in Prague
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Trade unions
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - Moscow protests against article in Czechoslovak press
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Trade talks fizzle
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovak-Soviet Relations Remain Uneasy
Weekly Summary - Economic Reform Lags in Czechoslovakia
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - The Soviets step up pressure on Prague again
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Warsaw Pact - Further signs of hastily arrangede command-staff exercise
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Recent actions may revive Soviet fears
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Warsaw Pact - Soviet commander arrives to take control of exercise
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Dubcek may allow the formation of new political parties
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovakia Moves Ahead on Reforms
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - More dismissals; Military exercises
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-Warsaw Pact - Exercise
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovaks Concentrate on Domestic Problems
Weekly Summary - Soviet Troops Enter Czechoslovakia for Pact Exercise
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovakia - The party factional struggle has again erupted into the open
Weekly Summary - Moscow Okays Missile Limitation Talks
Weekly Summary - The Struggle within the Czechoslovak Party Continues
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovakia Beset by Foreign and Domestic Problems
Weekly Summary - Soviets Set Limits on Dealing with the West
Central Intelligence Bulletin Czechoslovakia-USSR European communists may keep the crisis in talking stage
Central Intelligence Bulletin - France- The Communists' concern for their own declining position
Central Intelligence Bulletin-Czechoslovakia-USSR Dubcek defends the new course
Weekly Summary - USSR and Pact Allies Try to Tame Czechoslovakia
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Moscow and Prague spar over arranging high-level meeting
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Prague stalls on set up for meeting with Soviets
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR- Prague to delay talk agreement until Soviet troops leave
Central Intelligence Bulletin USSR-Czechoslovakia - Moscow steps up pressure in preparing for leaders' talks
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Top-level meeting still shrouded in secrecy
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - Soviet movements in East Germany put further pressure
Weekly Summary - Prague and Moscow Edge toward Summit Meeting
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Dubcek reasserts determination to continue reforms
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - The leaders meet under pressure of Soviet military
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - The confrontation is apparently still in progress
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia -Military buildup continues as talks go into third day
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Talks and troop movements continue
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - Cierna formula allows step back to direct confrontation
Weekly Summary - Soviets and Czechs Agree on Multilateral Talks
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - Eve of Bratislava, Dubcek calms concerns over Cierna
Central Intelligence Bulletin USSR-Czechoslovakia-Dubcek buys permission to pursue domestic reform
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - Communist leaders assess Cierna and Bratislava agreement
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Czech leaders continue efforts to return to normality
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Political life returns to normal in Czechoslovakia
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Rumania - Tension from Bucharest's exclusion from Bratislava
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovakia Wins Respite From the USSR
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia Signs of disapproval from some of Prague's allies
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-East Germany - Ulbricht visits Prague for high-level talks
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Talks with East Germany have not improved relations
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia-Poland - Ranking Soviet military officers in Pact exercises
Central Intelligence Bulletin - West Germany-Czechoslovakia - Bonn exercises caution for improved relations
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovakia's Economic Outlook after Bratislava
Weekly Summary - Prague Continues on Path to Reform
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Dubcek warns of irresponsible freedom of expression dangers
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Factional struggle again showing effects of Czechoslovak events
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR Czech leaders subjected to foreign and domestic pressures
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Upcoming Czechoslovak party congress is a critical test
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Rumania-Czechoslovakia - Treaty of friendship is renewed
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - Soviet and Warsaw Pact troops move into Czechoslovakia
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - Situation report with map
Weekly Summary - USSR Resorts to Invasion in Czechoslovak Crisis with map
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Rumania - Regime concerned over Soviet invasion possibility
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - Situation Report as of 2300 EDT, includes map
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - Situation Report as of 2300 EDT, includes map
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Yugoslavia-Rumania - Unity facade shattered with orthodox Communist regimes
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - Situation Report as of 2300 EDT, includes map
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - Situation Report as of 2300 EDT, includes map-Version 2
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Rumania - Bucharest seems less concerned over possible Soviet intervention
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - Situation Report as of 2300 EDT
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Situation report, includes map
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - Dissent on Czechoslovakia policy is heard in the USSR
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovak Crisis Inflames Divisions in Eastern Europe
Weekly Summary - Invasion of Czechoslovakia Leaves Uncertain Aftermath, includes map
Weekly Summary - Western Europe Reacts to Soviet-Czechoslovak Developments
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Dubcek wins party approval of Moscow agreement
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Rumania - Tension relaxes
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Eastern Europe - Uncertainty over Soviets keeps tensions high, includes map
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Czech leaders work toward support and withdrawal
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Rumania - Soviet criticism
Weekly Summary - Eastern Europe Reacts Adversely to Soviet Invasion
Weekly Summary - NATO Re-Evaluates Defense Concepts in a New Climate
Weekly Summary - Tension Eases as Occupation of Czechoslovakia Continues, includes map
Central Intelligence Bulletin - UN-Czechoslovakia - Several countries seek to keep Czech issue alive at UN
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - Soviet envoy monitoring progress of normalization
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Kuznetsov begins talks with Czechoslovak leaders
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Rumania - End of Bulgarian exercise contributes to relaxation of tensions
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Differences appear unresolved as talks continue
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Cernik returns from Moscow with economic pact
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Prague to legislate restrictions demanded by Moscow
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Prague moves to fulfill commitments to Moscow
Weekly Summary - NATO Continues to Seek Proper Response to Soviet Thrust
Weekly Summary - Rumania Cautiously Assesses Commitments and Prospects
Weekly Summary - Soviets and Czechoslovaks Struggle over 'Normalization'
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Dubcek said to be on the way out as party first secretary
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Prague leaders call for submission to Moscow agreement
Central Intelligence Bulletin - East Germany-Czechoslovakia - Pankow's hard line
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - Moscow has guarded approval of Czechoslovak trends
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Dubcek may go to Moscow later this week
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Poland-Czechoslovakia - Gomulka holds to necessity of Czechoslovak intervention
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - AN-22 in service
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-UN - Prague opposes all but general discussion of the crisis
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - leaders under increased domestic and foreign pressures
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-West Europe - Moscow's latest propaganda assault increase Bonn's anxiety
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Prague leadership changes aimed at satisfying Soviets
Weekly Summary - Eastern Europe Held in Soviet Economic Grip
Weekly Summary - Outstanding Prague-Moscow Problems Remain Unsettled
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Prague plays down Cernik's statement on troop disposition
Weekly Summary - Balkan Communist Regimes Adjust to New Realities
Weekly Summary - Moscow Losing Patience with Czechoslovak Leaders
Weekly Summary - Soviet People Question Intervention in Czechoslovakia
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovak Leaders Go To Moscow for Talks
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - Dubcek made further concessions in Moscow
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Leadership to be tested by popular reaction
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Czechoslovak leaders unreconciled to Moscow's demands
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Soviet whittling away at Dubcek's popular support
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovaks Resist New Soviet Pressures To Capitulate
Weekly Summary - Invasion to Have No Long-Term Impact on East-West Trade
Weekly Summary - NATO's Response to the Czechoslovak Crisis
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Prague affirm the carrying of reform program
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Dubcek acquiesced to just about all Soviet demands
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Moscow negotiations
Central Intelligence Bulletin -Czechoslovakia-USSR - Cernik-Kosygin talks without agreement on occupation
Central Intelligence Bulletin - East Germany - Government effort to justify role in Czechoslovak crisis
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - A military agreement has been signed
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Kuznetsov stays in Prague to monitor Moscow accords
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovakia Bows to New Soviet Demands
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Czechoslovakia approves Soviet status-of-forces agreement
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - New reports of challenges to Dubcek's leadership
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Party conservatives strengthened by status-of-forces agreement
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Czechoslovakia - Troop withdrawals
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovak Leaders Face New Pressures
Weekly Summary - Economic Reform Prospects Dim in USSR, Eastern Europe
Weekly Summary - Moscow Still Pressing for World Communist Conference
Weekly Summary - Yugoslavia Reappraises its Policies
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - New problems are developing for the Dubcek leadership
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Bill passed giving Slovaks near equality with the Czechs
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Anti-Soviet youths demonstrated in Prague yesterday
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - The federalization bill is to be signed today
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Japan - Communist party estrangement regarding Czechoslovak
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR-Yugoslavia - Moscow has again attacked Yugoslav policy
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Dubcek faced with growing dissension within the party
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Czechoslovak conservatives and liberals in confrontation
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Anti-Soviet demonstrations possible throughout the country
Central Intelligence Bulletin - USSR - A major Soviet statement defends decision to invade Czechoslovakia
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - There have been more anti-Soviet demonstrations, includes map
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Dubcek may be forced to tighten domestic discipline
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Dubcek faces serious problems while preparing for plenum
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - The leadership will make new concessions to Moscow
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Communist parties meet to set a new date for the international conference
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovaks Make New Concessions to Soviet Union
Weekly Summary - USSR Applies Economic Pressure on Yugoslavia
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Dubcek's speech satisfied neither his countrymen nor Moscow
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Party leadership moves to the middle of the road
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Balkans-Warsaw Pact - The political and military situation is quiescent
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Breakdown of unity achieved at the central committee plenum
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Faction leaders are competing for support among party members
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Prague seek Moscow's approval for certain economic reforms
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - A threatened railroad strike symptom of popular dissatisfaction
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - The party central committee plenary session under pressure
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Economy decentralization moves likely to be slow
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Another ranking Soviet delegation has arrived in Prague
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Dubcek faces severest crisis since the Soviet occupation
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Prague seeks to prevent further disorders to convince Soviets
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovak Popular Protests Pose Domestic Crisis
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovak Leadership Faces Additional Crises
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovakia Improves Relations with Invading Powers
Weekly Summary - Italian Communists Defy Moscow
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Prague dealing more confidently with Soviet occupiers
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Another self-immolation in Prague
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Labor is dissatisfied with its role in enterprise management
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Yugoslavia-USSR - Yugoslav party congress causes Belgrade and Moscow discord
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovaks Continue on Rocky Road to Normalization
Weekly Summary - Warsaw Pact and CEMA 'Summits' Delayed
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovaks Still Having Problems with 'Normalization'
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Slovak party leader Husak has laid down a tough line
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Weekend anti-Soviet demonstrations may lead to crackdown
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Dubcek leadership embroiled in serious post-invasional crisis
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovaks Move To Suppress Anti-Soviet Dissidence
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovak Leaders Act To Assuage Soviet Fears
Weekly Summary - Hungary Tries to Balance Dogmatists and Liberals
Weekly Summary - Yugoslavia and Rumania are Targets of Soviet Polemics
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR Pressure maintained in anticipation of Czechoslovak plenum
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia - Leaders prepare for tomorrow's central committee plenum
Central Intelligence Bulletin - Czechoslovakia-USSR - Dubcek ousted; Regime satisfactory to Soviets installed
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovak Plenum Elects Husak as Party Chief
Weekly Summary - Czechoslovakia Calm after Leadership Shuffle

FBIS and Press Reports

FBIS Special Report on Communist Propaganda - Soviet Propaganda on the Warsaw Pact
FBIS Bulletin - Soviet Leaders in Warsaw
FBIS Special Report on Communist Propaganda - The Aleksandrov Article in Pravda
FBIS - Dubcek Speech - Our working people
FBIS - CTK News Agency occupied
FBIS - Death Count, Appeals for Blood Donations
FBIS - Declaration of Support by Czechoslovak Writers Union
FBIS - Meeting of the National Committee of Prague
FBIS - National Assembly Declaration
FBIS - Report of student deaths
FBIS - Rumanian support communique
FBIS - Soviet Reinforcements
FBIS - Svoboda Speech
TASS Invasion Statement, Evening Star, Washington, DC
FBIS - West German Report on Intervention
Reuters - Nightlead - Vincent Buist Storm of anti-Russian Protest
Reuters - Report of Heavy Machine Gun Fire
Reuters - U.N. Security Council Session
UPI - Sen. Ralph W. Yarborough statement on Johnson return to Presidential Race
AP Extraordinary Congress of the Czechoslovak Communist Party
FBIS - Arrest of Martin Dzur, Defense Minister
FBIS - Blockade of East German and Czech Borders
FBIS - Czechoslovak Embassy in Cuba
FBIS - Excerpt from Vecerni Prada announcing Czech leadership in Moscow
FBIS - Military Telegram -- We are broadcasting the standpoint of the staff of the Central Military District
FBIS - National Assembly Letter to Svoboda
FBIS - National Assembly Session
FBIS - National Congress Proceedings
FBIS - Presidential Order
FBIS - Report on Czechoslovak Radio-Martial Law Declared
FBIS - Svoboda Meeting with Russians
FBIS - Tass on Occupation Progress
FBIS - Warsaw Pact Command Order
Reuters - Czech - Fighting
Reuters - Denial that Czech Leaders in Moscow
UPI - Appeal by Czech Airline Company for Support
FBIS - Czech Broadcasting Behavior
FBIS - Prague Martial Law
UPI - Correspondents filing dispatches from upper story
Reuters - Miodrag Klun report confirming Dubcek in Moscow
UPI - Harry Shapiro reporting on meetings in Moscow that included Dubcek
FBIS - Strougal-Cernik Conversation - Radio Czechoslovakia
FBIS - Czechoslovak-Soviet Compromise
FBIS - Report on Warsaw Pact Troops
FBIS - Soviet Czechoslovak Talks
Reuters - Soviet and Allied Occupying Troops
FBIS - Czechoslovak Wave of Protest
FBIS - Dubcek Speech - Radio Czechoslovakia
FBIS - Soviet - Czechoslovak Communique regarding leadership retention
FBIS Soviet - Czechoslovak Communique - A. A. Gromyko
Reuters - Czech Positions
FBIS Survey - The Czechoslovak Crisis-Invasion Produces Further Disarray in Communist
FBIS - Czech National Front Priorities; Radio Czechoslovakia in Czech
FBIS Special Memorandum - Public Warning Indicators of the Decision to Invade Czechoslovakia
FBIS Trends - Gorbachev Renounces Brezhnev Doctrine During Yugoslav Visit

Intelligence Communications Estimates and Memos

Special Memorandum no. 10-65--Prospects for independence in Eastern Europe
NIE 12-65--Eastern Europe and the Warsaw Pact
Special Memorandum no. 1-68--Czechoslovakia-a new direction
Special Memorandum no. 6-68--The USSR and Eastern Europe
Special Memorandum no. 10-68--The crisis in Soviet-Czechoslovak relations
Special Memorandum no. 12-68--Czechoslovakia-the Dubcek pause
Memorandum for Chairman, Watch Committee re: Czech-Soviet confrontation
Memorandum for the Director--The crisis in Czechoslovakia
Memorandum for the Director--The Czechoslovakia crisis
Memorandum for the Director--The consequences of Czechoslovakia
SNIE 11-17-68--Capabilities of the Warsaw Pact against NATO
Memorandum--The invasion of Czechoslovakia-impact on Yugoslavia
Memorandum for the Director of Central Intelligence--Post mortem on Czech crisis
NIE 12-68--Eastern Europe and the USSR in the aftermath of the invasion of Czechoslovakia
Memorandum - Near term prospects for Czechoslovakia
Memo for the Director--how permanent is the Soviet central group of forces in Czechoslovakia
Memo for the Director--how permanent is the Soviet central group of forces in Czechoslovakia

Intelligence Info Cables

Political Events and Personnel Changes in Czechoslovakia
Present USSR Attitudes toward Czechoslovakia
Assessment of Current Situation in Czechoslovakia
Preparations for Military Intervention in Czechoslovakia
Soviet Comments on Possibility of Forceful Intervention in Czechoslovakia
Soviet Official's Comments on Czechoslovakia and on East-West German Relations
Italian Communist Leaders' Reactions to Invasion of Czechoslovakia
Status of Warsaw Pact Forces in Czechoslovakia
A Soviet Official's Comments on the USSR's Global Policies
Soviet Treatment of Czechoslovak Leaders in Moscow
Soviet-Czechoslovak Relations in the Intelligence and Security Fields since the Invasion of Czechoslovakia
Agreement Between the Government of the USSR and Czechoslovakia on Soviet troop occupation

Intelligence Reports

Joint Study--Soviet Capabilities to reinforce in Central Europe
DI Intelligence Memorandum--Economic Pressure for change in Eastern Europe
Unsigned Memorandum--Need of Czechoslovakia for Western economic support
Intelligence Memorandum--Czechoslovakia in transition
Weekly Summary Special Report--Soviet Reactions to the changes in
Intelligence Memorandum--Foreign trade in the economic policy of Czechoslovakia
Intelligence Memorandum--The Czechoslovak-Soviet Struggle
Intelligence Memorandum--Military developments in the Soviet-Czech Confrontation
Memorandum For Nathaniel Davis (NSC)--The scenario At Cierna, 29 July-1 Aug 1968
Intelligence Memorandum--Military Intervention in Czechoslovakia
Memorandum--Free World Reaction to events in Czechoslovakia As of 1630 Hours
Memorandum--Reaction of Communist States and Parties to the Military Entry into Czechoslovakia
Memorandum--The Soviet Decision to Intervene in Czechoslovakia
DDCI Taylor to Deputy Director for Intelligence-Indications of Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia
DCI Briefing for Congressional Leaders on Soviet Troop Movements
Memo to DDCI Smith Re DDCI Memo on Handling of Indications Traffic
Unsigned Memorandum--Latin American Reaction to the Czechoslovakia Crisis
Intelligence Memorandum--Czechoslovakia-Economic meaning of enforced Soviet Control
Soviet Foreign Policy after Czechoslovakia
Unsigned Memorandum--The Czech Crisis-Questions for Discussion
Soviet Motives for The Invasion of Czechoslovakia
Intelligence Memorandum--Broadcasting in the Czechoslovak Crisis
Memorandum--Additional Thoughts on Western Europe Post Czechoslovakia
Memo To DDCI Admiral Taylor Re Strategic Warning
Intelligence Memorandum--World Communist reaction to the invasion of Czechoslovakia
Intelligence Memorandum-Short-Run Economic Effects of Soviet Occupation of Czechoslovakia
Intelligence Memorandum--Third World Reaction to Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia
Intelligence Memorandum--Economic Costs to Czechoslovakia and to the Warsaw Pact Powers
Intelligence Memorandum--Military Costs of the Warsaw Pact Invasion of Czechoslovakia
Intelligence Memorandum--The USSR's International Position After Czechoslovakia
Intelligence Memorandum--Current disposition and capabilities of Soviet Forces for localized offensive actions
Weekly Review Special Report--Economic Impact of USSR's Occupation of Czechoslovakia
Intelligence Memorandum--French foreign policy in the wake of the Czechoslovak crisis
Weekly Review Special Report--Italian Communist Party Draws further away from Moscow
Finished Reporting on the Czechoslovak-Soviet Crisis
Intelligence Report--Politics in the Soviet Politburo and the Czech Crisis
Intelligence Memorandum Response of the NATO Countries to the Czechoslovakia invasion
Intelligence Memorandum--Response of the NATO Countries to the invasion of Czechoslovakia
CIA memo to Peter Jessup, White House-Status of Warsaw Pact forces In Czechoslovakia
Weekly Summary Special Report--Czechoslovak Leadership faces uncertain Future
Intelligence Memorandum-Economic provisions of the agreement to station Soviet troops
Intelligence Memorandum-Soviet initiatives on arms talks since the Czechoslovak crisis
Critical Situation Overview -The Soviet-Czechoslovak Crisis, 1968
Intelligence Memorandum-Military Costs to the Soviets of the Invasion of Czechoslovakia
CIA Memo From DOSR To DDI--Post Mortem On The Czech Crisis
Intelligence Memorandum -- Effect of the Czech Crisis on Soviet Military Capabilities in Europe
Bruce Clark to DDI-Intelligence Memorandum- Czech crisis effect on Soviet Military capabilities in Europe
Weekly Review Special Report -- Czechoslovakia's Economic Prospects
Weekly Summary Special Report Soviet Position in Eastern Europe after Czechoslovakia
Intelligence Memorandum--Czechoslovakia--The Problem of Soviet Control
Statement of the Director, Office of Soviet Analysis, to the Chairman of the House Armed Services Committee

Situation Reports

The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 500PM EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 700 AM EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1000 AM EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 400 PM EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 400 PM EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 800 AM EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1030 AM EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 300 PM EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia July 22 300 PM EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 400 PM EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 400 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 4PM EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1600 EDT with cover note from W. Rostow
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 100 PM EDT
The Situation in Czechslovakia as of 1100AM EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1600 EDT with cover note from B. Smith
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1600 EDT
CIA Situation Report on Czechoslovakia as of 400 PM EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 100 PM EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 400 PM EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 0700 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1100 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1530 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 0600 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1100 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1600 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 4 P.M. EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 0600 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1100 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 0700 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1200 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1700 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 0800 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 2000 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 0600 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1100 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1130 hours EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1630 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1100 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 0630 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1130 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1630 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1130 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1630 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 0830 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia and Rumania as of 0700 EDT
The Situation in Rumania and Czechoslovakia as of 1530 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia and Rumania as of 1130 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 0630 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia as of 1600 EDT
The Situation in Czechoslovakia and Rumania as of 1500 EDT

Miscellaneous

State-INR memo to Rusk - Wheat Shipments and a Hard-Currency Loan - Major Elements in Evolving Soviet-Czech Relations
Telegram from US Embassy Prague - Czecho-Latest Developments
Chronology of Czechoslovak events, January - August, 1968
EUCOM Sitrep on Military Situation in Czechoslovakia with Cover Note from McManis to Rostow
EUCOM Sitrep with Cover Note from Rostow to the President
FBI Memo To President - Communist Party, USA - International Relations
Department of State Czech Task Force Sitrep
Schwartz Memo to Christain - Here is Pearson-Anderson Column in Wash Post Entitled Rusk Not Notified of invasion
Rusk Memo to the President re Expansion of Czechoslovak Task Force to Include Romanian Contingency
Oral Communications from Ambassador Dobrynin of the USSR to Secretary Rusk Re Czechoslovakia
Following are points made by Secretary Rusk
EUCOM - Czechoslovak Status Report
USAREUR Weekly Watch Report NR 36-68
DIA Intelligence Supplement - Soviet Electronic Countermeasures During Invasion of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia - Views of Vratislav Pechota
Effect of Invasion of Czechoslovakia on Communist Fronts
Oral History of John M. Leddy, Assistant Secretary of State for Europe
Dean Rusk Oral History Interview
The Kremlin, The Prague Spring, and the Brezhnev Doctrine by Mark Kramer

Strategic Warning Articles

A Watchman For All Seasons - Intelligence Evaluation for Warning
Soviet Deception in the Czechoslovak Crisis
Strategic Warning - The Problem of Timing
Strategic Warning and Deception
The Prediction of Soviet Intentions - Through a glass darkly
Analysis, War and Decisions-Why Intelligence Failures are Inevitable
Commanders and Surprise-Minimize the chances of human misjudgment
The CIA and Strategic Warning - The Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia

White House and NSC

Davis Memo to Rostow on Possible Soviet Economic Warfare Against Czechoslovakia or Romania
Davis Memo to Rostow on Czechoslovak Trade with the West
Memo from B. Smith to the President on the Situation in Czechoslovakia
Memo for the President on US Reaction to Soviet Troop Movements
Memo from Walt Rostow to the President - Czechoslovakian Influences Seeping into East
Davis Memo to Rostow on The Situation in Czechoslovakia
Davis Memo to Rostow on Czechoslovak Contingencies
Memo from Rostow to the President - Czechoslovakia Situation Report
Davis Memo to Rostow on The Situation in Czechoslovakia, 1000 EDT
Davis Memo to Rostow on The Situation in Czechoslovakia - July 22 At 1500 EDT
Lemnitzer Memo to Rostow on US military options in the event of Czech-Soviet hostilities
Lemnitzer Memo to Rostow on US-NATO Military Implications of Greater Czech Independence
For the President from Walt Rostow - The Situation in Czechoslovakia
Notes of the meeting of the President with his Foreign Policy Advisors at lunch
McCafferty Memo to Rostow on Activity of Czech Army Units
Rostow cover memo for Nat Davis situation report
Transcript of meeting with the President, Senator Dirksen, Secretary of State Rusk
Transcript of meeting with the President, Secretary Rusk, Secretary Clifford and Tom Johnson
Notes of the President's meeting with Foreign Policy Advisers
Minutes of the Cabinet meeting of July 31, 1968
Davis Memo to President on Czechoslovak-Soviet Communique
Davis Memo to President on Svoboda Speech to Czech people
Davis Memo to President on Dubcek Address to the Czechoslovak Nation
Memo From Davis to the President on the Czechoslovak Situation
Notes on briefing of former Vice President Nixon and Governor Agnew
Notes on Emergency Meeting of the National Security Council
Official USSR statement to President Johnson concerning the invasion of Czechoslovakia
Summary of meeting with the President, Ambassador Dobrynin and Walt Rostow
Cable from Embassy Prague on situation in Czechoslovakia
JCS Memo for the record - Some Observations on Soviet Intervention in Czechoslovakia
Memo from Helms to Rostow attached to CIA Memo on The Soviet Decision to Intervene
Memo from Rostow to the President on CIA Memo on The Soviet Decision to Intervene
Rostow Memo to the President - Czechoslovakia as Seen from Europe
Schwartz Memo to Rostow and Christian - Key Points in Secretary Rusk's Backgrounder on Czechoslovakia
The White House - Statement By the President on Czechoslovakia
Memo from Tom Johnson to LBJ - Meeting Notes of Cabinet meeting of 22 August
Minutes of the Cabinet Meeting of August 22, 1968 on Czechoslovakia
Rostow Memo to LBJ on reports of Soviet infiltration of Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs
CIA Memorandum for the Record - Morning Meeting of 22 August 1968
Memo from Rostow to the President--Talking Points for Today's Cabinet meeting on Czechoslovakia
Rostow Memo to the President on Favorable press reports on US Intelligence on Czech Crisis
Rostow Memo to the President on CIA report on artillery activity in Czechoslovakia
Memo from Rostow to the President on Meeting with Amb Dobrynin
Rostow Memo to President at LBJ Ranch on Rusk-Dobrynin meeting on 23 August
Rostow Memo to President at LBJ Ranch on US Embassy in Prague surrounded by Soviet Forces
Rostow cable to the President on the Czechoslovak Crisis
Rostow Memo to President at LBJ Ranch on Czech-Soviet Communique and General Situation
Rostow to President - Cable from USNATO on Conversation with Czechoslovakia Deputy Prime Minister Sik
Rostow to President - Transmittal of Embassy cable from Prague - Dubcek Sets Grim Tone
Rostow to President - Transmittal of State Department assessment of Czech-Soviet Communique
Schwartz Memo to Rostow commenting on article - Czechoslovakia - An American Intelligence Failure
Rostow to LBJ - Rusk-Dobrynin meeting on Czech Invasion and Romania
Cable from Rostow to President re CIA Czech Assessment
Rostow cable to the President re CIA's report on the situation in Rumania and Czechoslovakia
Rostow to President - FBI Cable on Moscow's Line to the US Communist Party on Czechoslovakia
Rostow to President - Latest assessment of the East European situation as of 0830 EDT
Rostow to LBJ cable - Rusk-Dobrynin on Soviet intentions regarding Romania
Lodge Cable from Bonn on Western Action on Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia
Cover Memo from DDI to Rostow on CIA report dated 9-3-1968 for NSC Meeting on Czech Crisis
Bromley K. Smith Cover Note on Odds of USSR Military Action in Czechoslovakia from Meeting on 7-30
Lemnitzer to Rostow on Warsaw Pact Forces in Czechoslovakia
Rostow Memo to the President on Order of Business for NCS Meeting on Issues Raised by the Czech Crisis
Summary Notes 590th NSC Meeting on Czechoslovak Crisis
Minutes of the Cabinet Meeting of September 5, 1968
Memo from Rostow to the President on Report from Czech Military Attache on Situation
Notes on President's Meeting with House Leadership on Czechoslovak Crisis
Minutes of the Cabinet Meeting of September 18, 1968
Memorandum of conversation between the Secretary, Amb. Dobrynin, Asst. Sec. Leddy
Memo from Rostow to President on Dubcek Arrest
Rostow cable to the President on Possible foreign withdrawal from Czechoslovakia
Rostow cable to the President on Ambassador Beam on Tangled State of Affairs in Czechoslovakia
Rostow Memo to the President - 50th Anniversary of Czechoslovakia
Memo from Davis to Rostow on The Soviet-Czech Communique
Lemnitzer Memo re GDR Participation in the Invasion of Czechoslovakia
Memo from Lemnitzer for Rostow on estimates of Soviet forces in Czechoslova
Memo from Lemnitzer for Rostow on number of troops in Czechoslovakia
Lemnitzer to Rostow Memo re Number of Soviet Divisions in Czechoslovakia
Lemnitzer to Rostow Memo re which Soviet Divisions are in Czechoslovakia
CIA Report Czech Armed Forces Being Placed on Alert, with NSC Cover Note