CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces

CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces:  The Importance of Clandestine Reporting

This study examines the role of clandestine reporting in CIA’s analysis of the Warsaw Pact from 1955 to 1985. The Soviet Union established itself as a threat to the West at the end of World War II by its military occupation of eastern European countries and the attempts of its armed proxies to capture Greece and South Korea. The West countered with the formation of NATO. While the West welcomed West Germany into NATO, the Soviets established a military bloc of Communist nations with the Warsaw Treaty of May 1955. This study continues CIA’s efforts to provide a detailed record of the intelligence derived from clandestine human and technical sources from that period. This intelligence was provided to US policy makers and used to assess the political and military balances and confrontations in Central Europe between the Warsaw Pact and NATO during the Cold War.

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Documents in this Collection

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VII-299 Locations of Polish National Air Defense, Antiaircraft, Air, and Naval Forces Participating in Exercise ZIMA [winter]-75, CIA/DO Intelligence Information Special Report, 14 April 1977 (DOI, mid-1975)

Document Number: 5196457b993294098d5094ab


VII-301 The Experience Gained in Conducting Combined Exercises by Lt. Gen. F. Shtreletts

Document Number: 5196457b993294098d5094a0


VII-302 Guide on the Organization and Conduct of Combined Exercises in the Warsaw Pact Forces, approved 11 November 1975 by the CINC of the Combined Armed Forces; it went into effect on 1 January 1976, 14 June 1977

Document Number: 5196457b993294098d509491


VII-303 “Regarding the Publication of the “Guide On The Organization and Conduct of Combined Exercises of the Combined Armed Forces of the Member States of the Warsaw Pact,” by Lt Gen. Konstantin Ivanovich Arsenyev, chief of the Directorate of Operational

Document Number: 5196457b993294098d5094b0


VII-304 “Our Experience in Conducting Command-Staff Exercises,” a Warsaw Pact journal article, by Col. Gen. T. Papazov, Deputy Minister of National Defense of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria, published by a secret Soviet publication

Document Number: 5196457b993294098d509494


VII-305 “From the Experience of the Actions of Rear Services Units and Facilities in the Tranzit-74 Exercise,” a Warsaw Pact journal article, by Maj. Gen. V. Semennikov and Col. V. Brazhnik, published by a secret Soviet publication

Document Number: 5196457b993294098d50949a


VII-306 Special Features of the Preparation and Conduct of Command-Staff and Tactical Exercises by General-Maj. L. Morots from a Secret Soviet publication, Information Collection of the Headquarters and Technical Committee of the Combined Armed Forces

Document Number: 5196457b993294098d5094a4


VII-307 Operations Groups from the Staffs of Formations and Large Units of the Ground Forces During the Conduct of Combined Exercises, by Colonel S.M. Mitev, 13 October 1977

Document Number: 5196457b993294098d5094a6


VII-308 The Methodology of Preparing and Conducting a Command-Staff Exercise of Allied Forces, a Warsaw Pact journal article, by Col. T. Tanev

Document Number: 5196457b993294098d509493


VII-310 The Conduct of a Tactical Exercise with Field Firing, Based on the Experience of the Czechoslovak People's Army by Maj. Ben. E. Blagut, CIA/DO, 8 November 1977

Document Number: 5196457b993294098d5094a8