CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces

CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces:  The Importance of Clandestine Reporting

This study examines the role of clandestine reporting in CIA’s analysis of the Warsaw Pact from 1955 to 1985. The Soviet Union established itself as a threat to the West at the end of World War II by its military occupation of eastern European countries and the attempts of its armed proxies to capture Greece and South Korea. The West countered with the formation of NATO. While the West welcomed West Germany into NATO, the Soviets established a military bloc of Communist nations with the Warsaw Treaty of May 1955. This study continues CIA’s efforts to provide a detailed record of the intelligence derived from clandestine human and technical sources from that period. This intelligence was provided to US policy makers and used to assess the political and military balances and confrontations in Central Europe between the Warsaw Pact and NATO during the Cold War.

View the OPA Press Release and Collection Booklet

Purchase the booklet from GPO  [external link disclaimer]

Documents in this Collection

Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®


Critique of the Front Two-Stage Operational-Rear Exercise Conducted in July 1961, by Commander-in-Chief of Ground Troops, Marshal of the Soviet Union Chuykov and the Chief of the Main Staff of the Ground Troops, General of the Army Popov, CIA/DP Clandesti

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a6093d


Cuba 1962: Khrushchev’s Miscalculated Risk, CIA/DI/ORR Staff Study, 13 February 1964

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a60618


Czech Report to Warsaw Pact Members on NATO Combat Capabilities and Intentions, CIA/DP Intelligence Information Special Report, 24 February 1967 (DOI, mid-November 1966).

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a60584


Czechoslovakia in Transition, CIA/DI/OCI, Intelligence Memorandum, 23 April 1968.

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a6080d


Czechoslovakia: The Problem of Soviet Control, CIA/DI/SRS Esau XLIV Intelligence Memorandum, 16 January 1970.

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a6089d


Debate over Role of Military in New Soviet Command Structure, CIA/DI/FBIS, Special Report on Communist Propaganda, 12 May 1967.

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a60579


Decision of the Warsaw Pact Member States Adopted at the Meeting of the Political Consultative Committee, CIA/DO Intelligence Information Special Report, 21 March 1978 (DOI, 17 March 1969).

Document Number: 5196457b993294098d50946a


Discussion of “Jesien II-73” Exercise by Chief of the Polish General Staff, Major General Florian Siwicki, CIA/DO Intelligence Information Special Report, 21 May 1975 (DOI, September 1973).

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a60880


Dnepropetrovsk Army Barracks Central, Dnepropetrovsk Oblast, USSR, Kiev MD, Photographic Interpretation Report, NPIC, December 1964

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a60608


Dnepropetrovsk Army Barracks, Dnepropetrovsk Oblast, SSR, Kiev MD, Photographic Interpretation Report, NPIC, December 1964

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a6068f