CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces

CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces:  The Importance of Clandestine Reporting

This study examines the role of clandestine reporting in CIA’s analysis of the Warsaw Pact from 1955 to 1985. The Soviet Union established itself as a threat to the West at the end of World War II by its military occupation of eastern European countries and the attempts of its armed proxies to capture Greece and South Korea. The West countered with the formation of NATO. While the West welcomed West Germany into NATO, the Soviets established a military bloc of Communist nations with the Warsaw Treaty of May 1955. This study continues CIA’s efforts to provide a detailed record of the intelligence derived from clandestine human and technical sources from that period. This intelligence was provided to US policy makers and used to assess the political and military balances and confrontations in Central Europe between the Warsaw Pact and NATO during the Cold War.

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Documents in this Collection

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“1980 Gierek Discussions with Marshal Kulikov,” CIA/DO Intelligence Information Special Report, 22 September 1980 (DOI, 1980).

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a608c2


“A Matter of Great Importance,” General of the Army S. Shtemenko, Military Thought secret issue, Number 2, 1968, CIA/DO Intelligence Information Special Report, 28 July 1977.

Document Number: 5196457b993294098d5094af


“A New Combat Vehicle,” by Lt. Gen. A. Shevchenko, special collection Military Thought, top secret issue No.4, 20 October 1961, CIA/DP, Clandestine Report Special Collection, 11 June 1962.

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a6094c


“A Road Troop Exercise,” a Warsaw Pact journal article, by Lt. Gen. Ye. Pastushenko from a secret Soviet publication, Information Collection of the Headquarters and Technical Committee of the Combined Armed Forces, issue No. 5, 1973, CIA/DO Intelligence I

Document Number: 5196457b993294098d5094a2


“A Soviet Official’s Views on Possible Soviet Reaction to West German Rearmament,” CIA/DP Information Report, 16 December 1954 (DOI, November 1954).

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a60831


“Actions of the Skeleton Troops during the Operational Command-Staff Exercise Soyuz-74,” a Warsaw Pact journal article, by Lt. Gen. K. Arsenyev, Col. V. Sopot, and Col. V. Zhilenkov, from a secret Soviet publication, Information Collection of the Headquar

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a60847


“Air and Air Defense Forces in the Near East War,” by Maj. Gen. of Artillery M. Umnov, Military Thought, secret issue No.2, 1968, CIA/DO Intelligence Information Special Report, 23 October 1973.

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a60590


“Airborne Landing in Operations of a Non Nuclear Period,” by Col. Grebish, Military Thought, secret issue No.3, 1968, CIA/DO Intelligence Information Special Report, 29 June 1973.

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a6059c


“Berlin Situation, and East German Refugee Flow Continues Despite Control Measures,” CIA/OCI, Current Intelligence Weekly Summary, 15 September 1960.Part II, pp 5-8.

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a607fc


“Berlin,” National Security Council Memorandum, 21 July 1961, (DOI, 7-12 July 1961).

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a607b9