CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces

CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces:  The Importance of Clandestine Reporting

This study examines the role of clandestine reporting in CIA’s analysis of the Warsaw Pact from 1955 to 1985. The Soviet Union established itself as a threat to the West at the end of World War II by its military occupation of eastern European countries and the attempts of its armed proxies to capture Greece and South Korea. The West countered with the formation of NATO. While the West welcomed West Germany into NATO, the Soviets established a military bloc of Communist nations with the Warsaw Treaty of May 1955. This study continues CIA’s efforts to provide a detailed record of the intelligence derived from clandestine human and technical sources from that period. This intelligence was provided to US policy makers and used to assess the political and military balances and confrontations in Central Europe between the Warsaw Pact and NATO during the Cold War.

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Documents in this Collection

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“Criticism of a Previous Article on Airborne Landings [in Operations during a Nonnuclear Period],” by Lt. Col. N. Noskov and Col. (retired) M. Orkin, Military Thought, secret issue No.2, mid-1969, CIA/DO Intelligence Information Special Report, 20 July 19

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a60594


“Critique of an Operational War Game on Maps Conducted on the Southwestern Axis,” CIA/DO Intelligence Information Special Report, 13 June 1975 (DOI, July 1970).

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a6088c


“Critique of Exercise ‘Zachod [West]-77’ and ‘Fala [Wave]-77’,” CIA/DO Intelligence Information Special Report, 8 November 1977 (DOI, June 1977).

Document Number: 5196457b993294098d509496


“Determining the Balance of Forces in Ground Forces Large Units in an Operation,” by Maj. Gen. (retired) G. Perventsev and Engineer Maj. D. Sokolov, Military Thought, secret issue No. 1, 1968, CIA/DO, Intelligence Information Special Report, 12 August 197

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a6084b


“Developments redacted,” CIA/DP Memorandum for the Record from John Maury, Chief SR Division, 3 August 1961.

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a607a5


“Directive of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR: Results of Operational Training in 1977-1978 and Tasks for 1979-1980,” CIA/DO Intelligence Information Special Report, 25 October 1979 (DOI, 14 November 1978).

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a608aa


“Directive on the Organization and Functions of the Polish Armed Forces Command System in Wartime,” CIA/DO Intelligence Information Special Report, 9 September 1975 (DOI, 1974-75).

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a60886


“Dissolution of Soviet Military Advisory Groups in the Satellites,” CIA/DP Information Report, 22 October 1958 (DOI, prior to mid-October 1958).

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a60932


“Elements of the Soviet Heavy Tank Division,” CIA/DP Information Report, 21 March 1958 (DOI, late 1957, or early 1958).

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a60929


“Essential Facts of the Penkovskiy Case,” from Deputy Director for Plans, Richard Helms, CIA/DP Memorandum for the DCI, 31 May 1963.

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a6081f