CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces

CIA Analysis of the Warsaw Pact Forces:  The Importance of Clandestine Reporting

This study examines the role of clandestine reporting in CIA’s analysis of the Warsaw Pact from 1955 to 1985. The Soviet Union established itself as a threat to the West at the end of World War II by its military occupation of eastern European countries and the attempts of its armed proxies to capture Greece and South Korea. The West countered with the formation of NATO. While the West welcomed West Germany into NATO, the Soviets established a military bloc of Communist nations with the Warsaw Treaty of May 1955. This study continues CIA’s efforts to provide a detailed record of the intelligence derived from clandestine human and technical sources from that period. This intelligence was provided to US policy makers and used to assess the political and military balances and confrontations in Central Europe between the Warsaw Pact and NATO during the Cold War.

View the OPA Press Release and Collection Booklet

Purchase the booklet from GPO  [external link disclaimer]

Documents in this Collection

Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®


“Berlin,” National Security Council Memorandum, 21 July 1961, (DOI, 7-12 July 1961).

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a607b9


“Briefing of General Maxwell Taylor on [redacted] Material,” John Maury, Chief RS Division, CIA/DP, Memorandum for the Record, 22 July 1961.

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a607b7


“Certain Questions in the Combat Utilization of Artillery in an Offensive Operation of an Army Being Moved from the Depth of Operational Deployment,” Information Collection of the Artillery, issue No. 45, 1958, CIA/ DP Clandestine Report Special Collectio

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a6093e


“Characteristics of the Organization of Communications in Combined Exercises of Allied Troops,” a Warsaw Pact journal article, by Maj. Gen. B.A. Komarov from a secret Soviet publication, Information Collection of the Headquarters and Technical Committee o

Document Number: 5196457b993294098d50948b


“Chronology of Events Concerning the Berlin Situation since 27 June 1961” with an Annex addressing Soviet Capabilities to Hinder the Use of Berlin Airfields and “Conclusions of Special USIB Subcommittee on Berlin Situation” attached, 25 July 1961.

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a607e1


“CIA Report (CSDB-3/648,173) on Soviet Plans and Policies Related to the German Situation,” Blind Memorandum from Department of State, INR, 28 September 1961.

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a607c9


“Clarification of Zhukov address to GSFG Senior Troop Commanders,” CIA/DP Information Report, 21 May 1957(DOI 12–16 March 1957).

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a6091e


“Combat Actions by a Tank Division Separated from the Main Forces of a Combined-Arms Army“ by Maj. Gen. G. Khaych, Military Thought, secret issue No. 3, 1965, CIA/DO Intelligence Information Special Report, 27 October 1976 (DOI, late 1965).

Document Number: 5166d4f999326091c6a60842


“Combat Actions of Air Defense Troops and the Air Forces of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam,” by Col. A. Graznov, Military Thought, secret issue No. 2, 1967, CIA/DO Intelligence Information Special Report, 18 September 1973.

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a60591


“Combat Actions of Front Aviation in an Offensive Operation on a Maritime Axis Carried Out without Nuclear Weapons,” by Maj. Gen. A. Bukhantsev, Military Thought, secret issue No. 3, 1970, CIA/DO Intelligence Information Special Report, 22 June 1973.

Document Number: 5166d4f899326091c6a6059a